Remarks[edit | edit source]
Subqueries can appear in different clauses of an outer query, or in the set operation.
They must be enclosed in parentheses
(). If the result of the subquery is compared to something else, the number of columns must match. Table aliases are required for subqueries in the FROM clause to name the temporary table.
Subquery in FROM clause[edit | edit source]
A subquery in a
FROM clause acts similarly to a temporary table that is generated during the execution of a query and lost afterwards.
SELECT Managers.Id, Employees.Salary FROM ( SELECT Id FROM Employees WHERE ManagerId IS NULL ) AS Managers JOIN Employees ON Managers.Id = Employees.Id
Subquery in WHERE clause[edit | edit source]
Use a subquery to filter the result set. For example this will return all employees with a salary equal to the highest paid employee.
SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE Salary = (SELECT MAX(Salary) FROM Employees)
Subquery in SELECT clause[edit | edit source]
SELECT Id, FName, LName, (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Cars WHERE Cars.CustomerId = Customers.Id) AS NumberOfCars FROM Customers
[edit | edit source]
Correlated (also known as Synchronized or Coordinated) Subqueries are nested queries that make references to the current row of their outer query:
SELECT EmployeeId FROM Employee AS eOuter WHERE Salary > ( SELECT AVG(Salary) FROM Employee eInner WHERE eInner.DepartmentId = eOuter.DepartmentId )
SELECT AVG(Salary) ... is correlated because it refers to
eOuter from its outer query.
Subqueries in FROM clause[edit | edit source]
You can use subqueries to define a temporary table and use it in the FROM clause of an "outer" query.
SELECT * FROM (SELECT city, temp_hi - temp_lo AS temp_var FROM weather) AS w WHERE temp_var > 20;
The above finds cities from the weather table whose daily temperature variation is greater than 20. The result is:
Subqueries in WHERE clause[edit | edit source]
The following example finds cities (from the cities example) whose population is below the average temperature (obtained via a sub-qquery):
SELECT name, pop2000 FROM cities WHERE pop2000 < (SELECT avg(pop2000) FROM cities);
Here: the subquery (SELECT avg(pop2000) FROM cities) is used to specify conditions in the WHERE clause. The result is:
Filter query results using query on different table[edit | edit source]
This query selects all employees not on the Supervisors table.
SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE EmployeeID not in (SELECT EmployeeID FROM Supervisors)
The same results can be achieved using a LEFT JOIN.
SELECT * FROM Employees AS e LEFT JOIN Supervisors AS s ON s.EmployeeID=e.EmployeeID WHERE s.EmployeeID is NULL
Subqueries in SELECT clause[edit | edit source]
SELECT w.*, (SELECT c.state FROM cities AS c WHERE c.name = w.city ) AS state FROM weather AS w;