Python TutorialGetting Started with PythonPython Basic SyntaxPython DatatypesPython IndentationPython Collection TypesPython Basic Input and OutputPython Built in Modules and FunctionsPython FunctionsChemPy - python packageCreating Python packagesFunctional Programming in PythonIncompatibilities moving from Python 2 to Python 3IoT Programming with Python and Raspberry PIKivy - Cross-platform Python Framework for NUI DevelopmentMutable vs Immutable (and Hashable) in PythonPyInstaller - Distributing Python CodePython *args and **kwargsPython 2to3 toolPython Abstract Base Classes (abc)Python Abstract syntax treePython Alternatives to switch statement from other languagesPython and ExcelPython Anti-PatternsPython ArcPyPython ArraysPython Asyncio ModulePython Attribute AccessPython AudioPython Binary DataPython Bitwise OperatorsPython Boolean OperatorsPython Checking Path Existence and PermissionsPython ClassesPython CLI subcommands with precise help outputPython Code blocks, execution frames, and namespacesPython Collections modulePython Comments and DocumentationPython Common PitfallsPython Commonwealth ExceptionsPython ComparisonsPython Complex mathPython concurrencyPython ConditionalsPython configparserPython Context Managers (with Statement)Python Copying dataPython CountingPython ctypesPython Data SerializationPython Data TypesPython Database AccessPython Date and TimePython Date FormattingPython DebuggingPython DecoratorsPython Defining functions with list argumentsPython DeploymentPython Deque ModulePython DescriptorPython Design PatternsPython DictionaryPython Difference between Module and PackagePython DistributionPython DjangoPython Dynamic code execution with `exec` and `eval`Python EnumPython ExceptionsPython ExponentiationPython Files & Folders I/OPython FilterPython FlaskPython Functools ModulePython Garbage CollectionPython GeneratorsPython getting start with GZipPython graph-toolPython groupby()Python hashlibPython HeapqPython Hidden FeaturesPython HTML ParsingPython HTTP ServerPython IdiomsPython ijsonPython Immutable datatypes(int, float, str, tuple and frozensets)Python Importing modulesPython Indexing and SlicingPython Input, Subset and Output External Data Files using PandasPython Introduction to RabbitMQ using AMQPStorm

Python Hidden Features

From WikiOD

Operator Overloading[edit | edit source]

Everything in Python is an object. Each object has some special internal methods which it uses to interact with other objects. Generally, these methods follow the __action__ naming convention. Collectively, this is termed as the Python Data Model.

You can overload any of these methods. This is commonly used in operator overloading in Python. Below is an example of operator overloading using Python's data model. The Vector class creates a simple vector of two variables. We'll add appropriate support for mathematical operations of two vectors using operator overloading.

class Vector(object):
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

    def __add__(self, v):
        # Addition with another vector.
        return Vector(self.x + v.x, self.y + v.y)

    def __sub__(self, v):
        # Subtraction with another vector.
        return Vector(self.x - v.x, self.y - v.y)

    def __mul__(self, s):
        # Multiplication with a scalar.
        return Vector(self.x * s, self.y * s)

    def __div__(self, s):
        # Division with a scalar.
        float_s = float(s)
        return Vector(self.x / float_s, self.y / float_s)

    def __floordiv__(self, s):
        # Division with a scalar (value floored).
        return Vector(self.x // s, self.y // s)

    def __repr__(self):
        # Print friendly representation of Vector class. Else, it would
        # show up like, <__main__.Vector instance at 0x01DDDDC8>.
        return '<Vector (%f, %f)>' % (self.x, self.y, )

a = Vector(3, 5)
b = Vector(2, 7)

print a + b # Output: <Vector (5.000000, 12.000000)>
print b - a # Output: <Vector (-1.000000, 2.000000)>
print b * 1.3 # Output: <Vector (2.600000, 9.100000)>
print a // 17 # Output: <Vector (0.000000, 0.000000)>
print a / 17 # Output: <Vector (0.176471, 0.294118)>

The above example demonstrates overloading of basic numeric operators. A comprehensive list can be found here.