SAS Formats

Informats and formats are used to tell SAS how to read and write the data respectively. Informats are commonly used in a datastep when reading data from an external file. Informats are rarely used in PROCs. Formats are commonly used in both data steps and PROCs.

SAS Formats convert either numeric or character values to character values. A format can either be applied using a format or put statement, which changes the way a value is displayed, or using the put function to store the formatted value in a new variable.

There are four categories of formats :

  • Character - instructs SAS to write character data values from character variables.
  • Date and Time - instructs SAS to write data values from variables that represent dates, times, and datetimes.
  • ISO 8601 - instructs SAS to write date, time, and datetime values using the ISO 8601 standard.
  • Numeric - instructs SAS to write numeric data values from numeric variables.

Formats usually take the form <formatname><w>.<d>;, w being the width (including any decimals and the point), d being the number of decimal places.

Common date formats (applied to SAS date values) :

  • date9. e.g. 02AUG2016
  • ddmmyyn8. e.g. 02082016
  • ddmmyy8. e.g. 02/08/16
  • yymmdd10. e.g. 20160802
  • year4. e.g. 2016

Common numeric formats (applied to numbers) :

  • comma11.0 e.g. 1,234,567
  • comma12.2 e.g. 1,234,567.00
  • dollar11.2 e.g. $5,789.12
  • nlmnlgbp11.2 e.g. £2,468.02

Other formats :

  • $hex8., convert string to hex
  • $upcase., convert string to upper-case
  • $quote., enclose a string in quotes

A full list of formats can be found here >

Using the format statement

The format statement applies the given format to the specified variable for display purposes only, i.e. the underlying value does not change.

data example1 ;
  Date  = '02AUG2016'd ; /* stored as a SAS date, i.e. a number */
  Date2 = '31AUG2016'd ;
  format Date monyy7. Date2 yymmddn8. ;
run ;
Date Date2
AUG2016 20160831

Using the format statement to group data

You can apply formats within a procedure, e.g. to change the groupings within a proc summary or proc freq.

Grouping SAS dates

data example2 ;
  do Date = '01JUN2016'dt to '31AUG2016'dt ;
    Days = 1 ;
    output ;
  end ;
run ;

/* Summarise by year & month */
proc summary data=example2 nway ;
  class Date ;
  var Days ;
  output out=example2_sum (drop=_TYPE_ _FREQ_) sum= ;
  format Date yymmn6. ; /* e.g. 201606 */
run ;
Date Days
201606 30
201607 31
201608 31
/* Summarise by month & year */
proc summary data=example2 nway ;
  class Date ;
  var Days ;
  output out=example2_sum2 (drop=_TYPE_ _FREQ_) sum= ;
  format Date monyy7. ; /* e.g. JUN2016 */
run ;
Date Days
JUN2016 30
JUL2016 31
AUG2016 31

The benefit of using a format is that the natural sort order is retained.

Using sashelp.class as an example, say you wanted to compare the frequency of the first letter of each name. You could use the substr() function to find the first letter, and run a proc freq on the new variable. Alternatively, you can apply the $1. format to the Name variable :

proc freq data=sashelp.class ;
  table Name ;
  format Name $1. ;
run ;
A 7
B 4
C 2

Custom Formats

Custom formats, also known as user defined formats, can be created and used like any other default formats.

/*Create new character format for state variables*/
VALUE $statef      'CA' = 'California'
                   'MA' = 'Massachusetts'
                   'NY' = 'New York';

/*Once created, you can use your custom format in PROC and DATA steps*/
FORMAT state-var $statef.;

The variable state-var will be printed according to the new format. For example, the value 'CA' will be printed as 'California'. If a value was not formatted, such as 'CT', then that value will be printed as it appears in the data set.

Using informats to read data

Informats are used to tell SAS how to read in the data and are identified with an informat statement.

data test;
 infile test.csv;
 informat     id $6.
              date mmddyy10.
              cost comma10.2
 input @1 id
       @7 date
       @20 cost

Informats and Formats can also be used together to read in the data and write it out in a different format such as with the salary variable below:

DATA workers;
  informat first last $16.;
  informat salary 12.1;
  informat birthdate 8.;
    first $ 
    last $ 
  format salary dollar10.;
John Smith 19810505 54998.5
Jane Doe 19950925 45884.5
Frank James 19600222 70000.5
Jamie Love 19630530 292000.5