Generics in Java


  • class MyClass<T1, T2 extends CharSequence> implements Comparable<MyClass> //...
  • interface MyListInterface<T extends Serializable> extends List<T> //...
  • public <T1, T2 extends Instant> T1 provideClone(T1 toClone, T2 instant> //...
  • public static List<CharSequence> safe(Collection<? extends CharSequence> l) { return new ArrayList<>(l);}
  • Set<String> strings = Collections.singleton("Hello world");
  • List<CharSequence> chsList = safe(strings);

Type erasure limits reflection, though that is not JVM specific, for example Ceylon uses reified generics.

Existential type support is not necessarily supported by other languages in this form: Kotlin supports it through type projections.


Generics was introduced in Java in its version (1.)5. These are erased during compilation, so runtime reflection is not possible for them. Generics generate new types parametrized by other types. For example we do not have to create new classes in order to use type safe collection of Strings and Numbers, generic ArrayList<T> can be used in all cases, like: new ArrayList<String>().


List<String> variable = new ArrayList<String>();

In Java 7 some syntactic sugar was introduced to ease the construction (<> aka. diamond):

List<String> variable = new ArrayList<>();

Interestingly it was also possible (from Java 5) to use type inference, when a static method had as a return value (often used in Google Guava for example):

List<String> singleton = Collections.singletonList();//Note the missing `<>` or `<String>`!

In Java existential types were used to provide polymorphism for the types, as the generic types are invariant (for example: List<String> is not a subtype, nor a supertype of List<CharSequence>, although in Java String[] is a subtype of CharSequence[]; note: String implements the CharSequence interface). Existential generic types can be expressed as:

List<? extends CharSequence> list = new ArrayList<String>();
Comparable<? super ChronoLocalDate> ccld =;
ChronoLocalDate cld =; //ChronoLocalDate extends Comparable<ChronoLocalDate>
//cld.compareTo(ccld);//fails to compile because ccld is not a `ChronoLocalDate` (compile time)

Both instances can be used in a list parametrized by the corresponding Comparable:

List<Comparable<? super ChronoLocalDate>> list2 = new ArrayList<>();

Generic Methods

Generic type parameters are commonly defined at the class or interface level, but methods and (rarely) constructors also support declaring type parameters bound to the scope of a single method call.

class Utility // no generics at the class level
    public static <T> T randomOf(T first, T... rest) {
        int choice = new java.util.Random().nextInt(rest.length + 1);
        return choice == rest.length ? first : rest[choice];

    public static <T extends Comparable<T>> T max(T t1, T t2) {
        return t1.compareTo(t2) < 0 ? t2 : t1;

Notice the type parameter declarations, T and <T extends Comparable<T>> respectively, appear after the method modifiers and before the return type. This allows the type parameter T to be used within the scope of such methods, acting as:

  • argument types
  • return type
  • local variable types

Though both methods above use the same type parameter name T, at the method level they are completely independent of each other. The compiler will infer the actual type based on the arguments passed to the method at each call site that invokes the method. Since the max method declares that T extends Comparable<T>, the compiler also enforces that the inferred types are compatible implementations of the Comparable interface.

Integer num1 = 1;
Integer num2 = 2;
String str1 = "abc";
String str2 = "xyz";

Integer bigger = Utility.max(num1, num2);
assert bigger == num2;

String later = Utility.max(str2, str1);
assert later == str2;

Utility.max(num1, str1); // compiler error: num1 and str1 are incompatible types

Utility.max(new Object(), new Object()); // compiler error: Object does not implement Comparable

Java 8 significantly improved the compiler’s ability to correctly infer the generic types at call sites. If the compiler fails to infer the proper type, developers can explicitly state the type as a part of the call:

Object obj = Utility.<Object>randomOf(str1, new Object(), num1);