Comenzando con glsl

Primer programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL

Un simple programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL con posición de vértice y atributo de color. El programa se ejecuta con un script phyton. Para ejecutar el script, PyOpenGL debe estar instalado.

Un programa de sombreado consta al menos de un sombreador de vértices y un sombreador de fragmentos (a excepción de los sombreadores de computadora). La primera etapa del sombreador es el sombreador de vértices y la última etapa del sombreador es el sombreador de fragmentos (en el medio, son posibles otras etapas opcionales, que no se describen con más detalle aquí).

Sombreador de vértices

primer.veterinario

El sombreador de vértices procesa los vértices y los atributos asociados especificados por el comando de dibujo. El sombreador de vértices procesa los vértices del flujo de entrada y puede manipularlo de la forma deseada. Un sombreador de vértices recibe un solo vértice del flujo de entrada y genera un solo vértice para el flujo de vértice de salida.

En nuestro ejemplo, dibujamos un solo triángulo, por lo que el sombreador de vértices se ejecuta 3 veces, una para cada punto de esquina del triángulo. En este caso, la entrada al vertex shader es la posición del vértice in vec3 inPos y el atributo de color in vec3 inCol. Los atributos de color se pasa a la siguiente etapa de sombreado (out vec3 vertCol).

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inCol;

out vec3 vertCol;

void main()
{
    vertCol = inCol;
    gl_Position = vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
}

Sombreador de fragmentos

primer.frag

En este ejemplo, el sombreador de fragmentos sigue inmediatamente después del sombreador de vértices. Las posiciones de los vértices y los atributos se interpolan dentro de cada cara para cada fragmento. El sombreador de fragmentos se ejecuta una vez para cada fragmento en todo el triángulo y recibe el atributo de color del sombreador de fragmentos. Dado que se dibuja un triángulo, el atributo de color se interpola de acuerdo con las coordenadas baricéntricas del fragmento basado en el triángulo dibujado.

#version 400

in vec3 vertCol;

out vec4 fragColor;

void main()
{
    fragColor = vec4( vertCol, 1.0 );
}

Guión Phyton

La secuencia de comandos de python es solo para compilar, vincular y ejecutar el programa de sombreado y dibujar geometría. Podría reescribirse trivialmente en C o cualquier otra cosa. No es la parte de esta documentación a la que debe dedicarse la mayor atención.

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
from sys import *
from array import array
             
# draw event
def OnDraw(): 
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glBindVertexArray( vaObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 3 )
    glutSwapBuffers()

# read vertex shader program
with open( 'first.vert', 'r' ) as vertFile:
    vertCode = vertFile.read()
print( '\nvertex shader code:' )
print( vertCode )

# read fragment shader program
with open( 'first.frag', 'r' ) as fragFile:
    fragCode = fragFile.read()
print( '\nfragment shader code:' )
print( fragCode )

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW = 800
wndH = 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define triangle data
posData = [ -0.636, -0.45, 0.0, 0.636, -0.45, 0.0, 0.0, 0.9, 0.0 ]
colData = [ 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ]
posAr = array( "f", posData )
colAr = array( "f", colData )

# create buffers
posBuffer = glGenBuffers(1)
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, posBuffer )
glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, posAr.tostring(), GL_STATIC_DRAW )
colBuffer = glGenBuffers(1)
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, colBuffer )
glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, colAr.tostring(), GL_STATIC_DRAW )

# create vertex array opject
vaObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
glBindVertexArray( vaObj )
glEnableVertexAttribArray( 0 )
glEnableVertexAttribArray( 1 )
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, posBuffer )
glVertexAttribPointer( 0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, colBuffer )
glVertexAttribPointer( 1, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )

# compile vertex shader
vertShader = glCreateShader( GL_VERTEX_SHADER )
glShaderSource( vertShader, vertCode )
glCompileShader( vertShader )
result = glGetShaderiv( vertShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
if not (result):
    print( glGetShaderInfoLog( vertShader ) )
    sys.exit()

# compile fragment shader
fragShader = glCreateShader( GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
glShaderSource( fragShader, fragCode )
glCompileShader( fragShader )
result = glGetShaderiv( fragShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
if not (result):
    print( glGetShaderInfoLog( fragShader ) )
    sys.exit()

# link shader program
shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
glAttachShader( shaderProgram, vertShader )
glAttachShader( shaderProgram, fragShader )
glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
if not (result):
    print( 'link error:' )
    print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
    sys.exit()

# start main loop
glutMainLoop()

Uso de una matriz de Modelo, Vista y Proyección en OGL 4.0 GLSL

Un simple programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL que muestra el uso de una matriz de modelo, vista y proyección El programa se ejecuta con un script phyton. Para ejecutar el script, PyOpenGL y NumPy deben estar instalados.

  • Matriz de proyección: La matriz de proyección describe el mapeo de una cámara estenopeica desde puntos 3D en el mundo a puntos 2D de la ventana En este ejemplo usamos una matriz de proyección con un campo de visión de 90 grados.

  • Ver matriz: La matriz de vista define la posición del ojo y la dirección de visualización en la escena. En este ejemplo, nos estamos moviendo circularmente alrededor de la escena manteniendo una dirección de visualización hacia el centro de la escena.

  • Modelo matriz: La matriz del modelo define la ubicación y el tamaño relativo de un objeto en la escena. En este ejemplo, las matrices del modelo mueven los objetos hacia arriba y hacia abajo.

Sombreador de vértices

mvp.saber

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inCol;

out vec3 vertCol;

uniform mat4 projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 viewMat44;
uniform mat4 modelMat44;

void main()
{
    vertCol = inCol;
    vec4 modolPos = modelMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    vec4 viewPos = viewMat44 * modolPos;
    gl_Position = projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}

Sombreador de fragmentos

mvp.frag

#version 400

in vec3 vertCol;

out vec4 fragColor;

void main()
{
    fragColor = vec4( vertCol, 1.0 );
}

Guión Phyton

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    currentTime = time()
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = perspective( 90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = Translate( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32'), np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -8.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [10.0, CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ), 0.0] )
    
    # set up tetrahedron model matrix
    tetModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    tetModelMat = RotateX( tetModelMat, -90.0 )
    tetModelMat = Scale( tetModelMat, np.repeat( 2.0, 3 ) )
    tetModelMat = Translate( tetModelMat, np.array( [-2.0, 0.0, CalcMove(currentTime, 6.0, [-1.0, 1.0])] ) )

    # set up icosahedron model matrix
    icoModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, -90.0 )
    icoModelMat = Scale( icoModelMat, np.repeat( 2.0, 3 ) )
    icoModelMat = Translate( icoModelMat, np.array( [2.0, 0.0, CalcMove(currentTime, 6.0, [1.0, -1.0])] ) )
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    
    # draw tetrahedron
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, tetModelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( tetVAObj )
    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, len(tetIndices), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, tetIndices)

    # draw tetrahedron
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, icoModelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( icoVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, len(icoPosData) )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
       
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array opject
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define tetrahedron vertex array opject
sin120 = 0.8660254
tetPposData = [ 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, -sin120, -0.5, sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120, -0.5, -sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120,     -0.5 ]
tetColData = [ 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, ]
tetIndices = [ 0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3, 0, 3, 1, 1, 3, 2 ]
tetVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, tetPposData), (3, tetColData) ] )
tetInxArr = np.array( tetIndices, dtype='uint' )

# define icosahedron vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    [ 0.000,  0.000,  1.000], [ 0.894,  0.000,  0.447], [ 0.276,  0.851,  0.447], [-0.724,  0.526,  0.447],
    [-0.724, -0.526,  0.447], [ 0.276, -0.851,  0.447], [ 0.724,  0.526, -0.447], [-0.276,  0.851, -0.447], 
    [-0.894,  0.000, -0.447], [-0.276, -0.851, -0.447], [ 0.724, -0.526, -0.447], [ 0.000,  0.000, -1.000] ]
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
icoIndices = [
  2,  0,  1,  3,  0,  2,  4,  0,  3,  5,  0,  4,  1,  0,  5, 11,  7,  6, 11,  8,  7, 11,  9,  8, 11, 10,  9, 11,  6, 10, 
  1,  6,  2,  2,  7,  3,  3,  8,  4,  4,  9,  5,  5, 10,  1,  2,  6,  7,  3,  7,  8,  4,  8,  9,  5,  9, 10,  1, 10,  6  ]
icoPosData = []
for inx in icoIndices:
    for inx_s in range(0, 3):
        icoPosData.append( icoPts[inx][inx_s] )
icoColData = []
for inx in range(0, len(icoPosData) // 9):
    inx_col = inx % len(icoCol)
    for inx_p in range(0, 3):
        for inx_s in range(0, 3):
                icoColData.append( icoCol[inx_col][inx_s] )
icoVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, icoPosData), (3, icoColData) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'mvp.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'mvp.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "viewMat44")
modelMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "modelMat44")

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()

Coloque una textura en el modelo y use una matriz de textura en OGL 4.0 GLSL

Un simple programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL que muestra cómo mapear una textura 2D en una malla. El programa se ejecuta con un script phyton. Para ejecutar el script, PyOpenGL y NumPy deben estar instalados.

La matriz de textura define cómo se mapea la textura en la malla. Al manipular la matriz de textura, la textura se puede desplazar, escalar y rotar.

Sombreador de vértices

tex.vert

#versión 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec2 inTex;

out vec2 vertTex;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_viewMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelMat44;
uniform mat4 u_textureMat44;

void main()
{
    vertTex = ( u_textureMat44 * vec4( inTex, 0.0, 1.0 ) ).st;
    vec4 modolPos = u_modelMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    vec4 viewPos = u_viewMat44 * modolPos;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}

Sombreador de fragmentos

tex.frag

#version 400

in vec2 vertTex;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;

void main()
{
    vec4 texCol = texture( u_texture, vertTex.st );
    fragColor = vec4( texCol.rgb, 1.0 );
}

Guión Phyton

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    currentTime = time()
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = perspective( 90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = Translate( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32'), np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -15.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, CalcAng( currentTime, 60.0 ), 0.0] )
    
    # set up tetrahedron model matrix
    cubeModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    cubeModelMat = RotateX( cubeModelMat, -90.0 )
    cubeModelMat = Scale( cubeModelMat, np.repeat( 5.0, 3 ) )
    
    # set up texture matrix
    texMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    deltaT = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / 28.0 ) * 28.0
    if deltaT < 7.0 or deltaT >= 21.0:
        texMat = Scale( texMat, np.repeat( CalcMove(currentTime, 7.0, [1.0, 2.0]), 3 ) )
    if deltaT >= 7.0 and deltaT < 14.0 or deltaT >= 21.0:
        transAng = math.radians( CalcAng(currentTime, 7.0) )
        texMat = Translate( texMat, np.array( [math.sin(transAng)*0.5, math.cos(transAng)*0.5-0.5, 0.0] ) )
    if deltaT >= 14.0:
        texMat = RotateZ( texMat, CalcAng(currentTime, 7.0) )
    
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( textureMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, texMat )
    glUniform1i( textureLocation, 0 )
    
    # draw cube
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, cubeModelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( cubeVAObj )
    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, len(cubeIndices), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, cubeIndices)
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define cube vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    [-1.0, -1.0,  1.0], [ 1.0, -1.0,  1.0], [ 1.0,  1.0,  1.0], [-1.0,  1.0,  1.0],
    [-1.0, -1.0, -1.0], [ 1.0, -1.0, -1.0], [ 1.0,  1.0, -1.0], [-1.0,  1.0, -1.0] ]
cubePosData = []
for inx in [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6, 2, 5, 4, 7, 6, 4, 0, 3, 7, 3, 2, 6, 7, 1, 0, 4, 5 ]:
    for inx_s in range(0, 3): cubePosData.append( icoPts[inx][inx_s] )
cubeTexData = []
for inx in range(0, 6):
    for texCoord in [-0.5, -0.5, 0.5, -0.5, 0.5, 0.5, -0.5, 0.5]: cubeTexData.append( texCoord )
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
cubeIndices = []
for inx in range(0, 6):
    for inx_s in [0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3]: cubeIndices.append( inx * 4 + inx_s )
cubeVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, cubePosData), (2, cubeTexData) ] )
cubeInxArr = np.array( cubeIndices, dtype='uint' )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4tex/tex.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4tex/tex.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_viewMat44")
modelMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelMat44")
textureMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_textureMat44")
textureLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_texture")

# create texture
texCX, texCY = 128, 128
texPlan = np.zeros( texCX * texCY * 4, dtype=np.uint8 )
for inx_x in range(0, texCX):
    for inx_y in range(0, texCY):
        val_x = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_x / texCX )
        val_y = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_y / texCY )
        inx_tex = inx_y * texCX * 4 + inx_x * 4
        texPlan[inx_tex + 0] = int( 128 + 127 * val_x )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 1] = 63
        texPlan[inx_tex + 2] = int( 128 + 127 * val_y )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 3] = 255
glActiveTexture( GL_TEXTURE0 )
texObj = glGenTextures( 1  )
glBindTexture( GL_TEXTURE_2D, texObj )
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, texCX, texCY, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, texPlan)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT) 

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()

Uso de bloque de interfaz y bloque uniforme: un modelo de luz de Cook-Torrance en OGL 4.0 GLSL

Un simple programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL que muestra el uso de un bloque de interfaz y un bloque uniforme en una implementación de modelo de luz de microfacetas de Cook-Torrance. El programa se ejecuta con un script phyton. Para ejecutar el script, PyOpenGL y NumPy deben estar instalados.

Un bloque de interfaz es un grupo de variables de búfer de almacenamiento, uniformes, de salida o de entrada GLSL. Un bloque uniforme es un bloque de interfaz con el calificador de almacenamiento ‘uniforme’.

Sombreador de vértices

ibub.host

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNV;
layout (location = 2) in vec3 inCol;

out TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelViewMat44;
uniform mat3 u_normalMat33;

void main()
{
    vec4 viewPos = u_modelViewMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    outData.nv  = u_normalMat33 * normalize( inNV );
    outData.col = inCol;
    
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}

Sombreador de fragmentos

ibub.preguntar

#version 400

in TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

vec3 CookTorrance( vec3 esPt, vec3 esPtNV, vec3 col, vec4 specularTint, float roughness, float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  vec3  reflVector    = normalize( reflect( -esVLight, esPtNV ) );
  float VdotR         = dot( esVEye, reflVector );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  
  // Cook-Torrance fresnel
  float theta = HdotL;
  float n = (1.0 + sqrt(fresnel0)) / (1.0 - sqrt(fresnel0));
  float g = sqrt( n*n + theta * theta + 1.0 );
  float gc = g + theta;
  float g_c = g - theta;
  float q = (gc * theta - 1.0) / (g_c * theta + 1.0);
  float fresnel = 0.5 * (g_c * g_c) / (gc * gc) * (1.0 + q * q);

  // Gaussian  distribution
  float psi = acos( VdotR );
  float distribution = max( 0.0, HdotL * exp( - psi * psi / m2 ) );
  
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );

  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float brdf_spec = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  float k_specular = brdf_spec;

  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb
                  + max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                  + max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) *     u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}

void main()
{
    vec3 lightCol = CookTorrance( inData.pos, inData.nv, inData.col, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    fragColor = vec4( lightCol, 1.0 );
}

Guión Phyton

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = Translate( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32'), np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -12.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-3.0, -2.0, -1.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up tetrahedron model matrix
    tetModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: tetModelMat = RotateY( tetModelMat, comeraRotAng )
    tetModelMat = RotateX( tetModelMat, -90.0 )
    tetModelMat = Scale( tetModelMat, np.repeat( 2.4, 3 ) )
    tetModelMat = Translate( tetModelMat, np.array( [0.0, dist, 0.0] ) )
    tetModelMat = RotateY( tetModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    tetModelMat = RotateX( tetModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 9.0 ) )
    
    # set up icosahedron model matrix
    icoModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, comeraRotAng )
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, -90.0 )
    icoModelMat = Scale( icoModelMat, np.repeat( 2.0, 3 ) )
    icoModelMat = Translate( icoModelMat, np.array( [dist * -sin120, dist * -0.5, 0.0] ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 11.0 ) )

    # set up cube model matrix
    cubeModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: cubeModelMat = RotateY( cubeModelMat, comeraRotAng )
    cubeModelMat = RotateX( cubeModelMat, -90.0 )
    cubeModelMat = Scale( cubeModelMat, np.repeat( 1.6, 3 ) )
    cubeModelMat = Translate( cubeModelMat, np.array( [dist * sin120, dist * -0.5, 0.0] ) )
    cubeModelMat = RotateY( cubeModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    cubeModelMat = RotateX( cubeModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 13.0 ) )
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw tetrahedron
    tetMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, tetModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( tetVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, len(tetPosData) )

    # draw icosahedron
    icoMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, icoModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( icoVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_TRIANGLES, 0, len(icoPosData) )

    # draw cube
    cubeMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, cubeModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( cubeVAObj )
    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, len(cubeIndices), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, cubeIndices)
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        self.size = 0
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets    [self.namemap[uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)


def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA    [3,i1]    
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define tetrahedron vertex array opject
tetPts = [ (0.0, 0.0, 1.0), (0.0, -sin120, -0.5), (sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120, -0.5), (-sin120 * sin120, 0.5 * sin120,     -0.5) ]
tetCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], ]
tetInxdices = [ 0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3, 0, 3, 1, 1, 3, 2 ]
tetPosData = []
for inx in tetInxdices: AddToBuffer( tetPosData, tetPts[inx] )
tetNVData = []
for inx_nv in range(0, len(tetInxdices) // 3):
    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
    for inx_p in range(0, 3): 
        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += tetPts[ tetInxdices[inx_nv*3 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
    AddToBuffer( tetNVData, nv, 3 )
tetColData = []
for inx_col in range(0, len(tetInxdices) // 3): AddToBuffer( tetColData, tetCol[inx_col % len(tetCol)], 3 )
tetVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, tetPosData), (3, tetNVData), (3, tetColData) ] )

# define icosahedron vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    ( 0.000,  0.000,  1.000), ( 0.894,  0.000,  0.447), ( 0.276,  0.851,  0.447), (-0.724,  0.526,  0.447),
    (-0.724, -0.526,  0.447), ( 0.276, -0.851,  0.447), ( 0.724,  0.526, -0.447), (-0.276,  0.851, -0.447), 
    (-0.894,  0.000, -0.447), (-0.276, -0.851, -0.447), ( 0.724, -0.526, -0.447), ( 0.000,  0.000, -1.000) ]
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
icoIndices = [
  2,  0,  1,  3,  0,  2,  4,  0,  3,  5,  0,  4,  1,  0,  5, 11,  7,  6, 11,  8,  7, 11,  9,  8, 11, 10,  9, 11,  6, 10, 
  1,  6,  2,  2,  7,  3,  3,  8,  4,  4,  9,  5,  5, 10,  1,  2,  6,  7,  3,  7,  8,  4,  8,  9,  5,  9, 10,  1, 10,  6  ]
icoPosData = []
for inx in icoIndices: AddToBuffer( icoPosData, icoPts[inx] )
icoNVData = []
for inx in icoIndices: AddToBuffer( icoNVData, icoPts[inx] )
#for inx_nv in range(0, len(icoIndices) // 3):
#    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
#    for inx_p in range(0, 3): 
#        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += icoPts[ icoIndices[inx_nv*3 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
#    AddToBuffer( icoNVData, nv, 3 )
icoColData = []
for inx_col in range(0, len(icoIndices) // 3): AddToBuffer( icoColData, icoCol[inx_col % len(icoCol)], 3 )
icoVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, icoPosData), (3, icoNVData), (3, icoColData) ] )

# define cube vertex array opject
cubePts = [
    (-1.0, -1.0,  1.0), ( 1.0, -1.0,  1.0), ( 1.0,  1.0,  1.0), (-1.0,  1.0,  1.0),
    (-1.0, -1.0, -1.0), ( 1.0, -1.0, -1.0), ( 1.0,  1.0, -1.0), (-1.0,  1.0, -1.0) ]
cubeCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
cubeHlpInx = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6, 2, 5, 4, 7, 6, 4, 0, 3, 7, 3, 2, 6, 7, 1, 0, 4, 5 ] 
cubePosData = []
for inx in cubeHlpInx: AddToBuffer( cubePosData, cubePts[inx] )
cubeNVData = []
for inx_nv in range(0, len(cubeHlpInx) // 4):
    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
    for inx_p in range(0, 4):
        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += cubePts[ cubeHlpInx[inx_nv*4 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
    AddToBuffer( cubeNVData, nv, 4 )
cubeColData = []
for inx_col in range(0, 6):
    AddToBuffer( cubeColData, cubeCol[inx_col % len(cubeCol)], 4 )
cubeIndices = []
for inx in range(0, 6):
    for inx_s in [0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3]: cubeIndices.append( inx * 4 + inx_s )
cubeVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, cubePosData), (3, cubeNVData), (3, cubeColData) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'ibub.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'ibub.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
modelViewMatLocation  = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelViewMat44")
normalMatLocation     = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_normalMat33")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.4, 0.4, 0.4, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

tetMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
tetMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.3])
tetMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.5])
tetMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.7])

icoMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.1])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.2])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.7])

cubeMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
cubeMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.5])
cubeMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.3])
cubeMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.7])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()

Creando geometría usando un shader de geometría en OGL 4.0 GLSL

Un simple programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL que muestra el uso de sombreadores de geometría. El programa se ejecuta con un script phyton. Para ejecutar el script, PyOpenGL y NumPy deben estar instalados.

En este ejemplo, toda la geometría (un cilindro) se genera en el shader de geometría.

Sombreador de vértices

geo.vert

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNormal;
layout (location = 2) in vec3 inTangent;

out TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} outData;

void main()
{
    vec3 normal   = normalize( inNormal );
    vec3 tangent  = normalize( inTangent );
    vec3 binormal = cross( tangent, normal );
    
    outData.orientationMat = mat3( normal, cross( binormal, normal ), binormal );
    gl_Position = vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
}

Sombreador de geometría

geo.geo

#version 400

layout( invocations = 3 ) in;
layout( points ) in;
layout( triangle_strip, max_vertices = 160 ) out;

in TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} inData[];

out TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_viewMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelMat44;

void NewVertex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat )
{
    vec4 viewPos = transMat * vec4( pt, 1.0 );
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
    EmitVertex();
}

const int circumferenceTile = 36;

void main()
{
    vec4 origin = gl_in[0].gl_Position;
    origin /= origin.w;
    mat4 orintationMat = mat4( vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[0], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[1], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[2], 0.0 ),
                               origin );
    mat4 modelViewMat = u_viewMat44 * u_modelMat44 * orintationMat;
    mat3 normalMat = mat3( modelViewMat );
  
    outData.col = vec3( 0.5, 0.7, 0.6 );

    if ( gl_InvocationID == 0 ) // top of the cylinder
    {
        outData.nv  = normalMat * vec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0);
        vec2 prevPt = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inx = 1; inx <= circumferenceTile; inx += 2 )
        {
            float ang1 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float ang2 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx+1) / float(circumferenceTile);
            vec2 actPt1 = vec2( sin(ang1), cos(ang1) );
            vec2 actPt2 = vec2( sin(ang2), cos(ang2) );
      
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt1.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt2.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            
            EndPrimitive();
            prevPt = actPt2;
        }
    }

    if ( gl_InvocationID == 1 ) // bottom of the cylinder  
    {
        outData.nv  = normalMat * vec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0);    
        vec2 prevPt = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inx = circumferenceTile-1; inx >= 0; inx -= 2 )
        {
            float ang1 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float ang2 = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx-1) / float(circumferenceTile);
            vec2 actPt1 = vec2( sin(ang1), cos(ang1) );
            vec2 actPt2 = vec2( sin(ang2), cos(ang2) );    
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt1.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt2.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            
            EndPrimitive();
            prevPt = actPt2;
        }
    }

    if ( gl_InvocationID == 2 ) // hull of the cylinder
    {
        vec2 prevPt = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inx = 1; inx <= circumferenceTile; ++ inx )
        {
            float ang = 2.0 * 3.14159 * float(inx) / float(circumferenceTile);
            vec2 actPt = vec2( sin(ang), cos(ang) );
            
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(prevPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(actPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt.xy, -1.0), modelViewMat );
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(prevPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(prevPt.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            outData.nv = normalMat * vec3(actPt, 0.0);
            NewVertex( vec3(actPt.xy, 1.0), modelViewMat );
            
            prevPt = actPt;
        }
        EndPrimitive();
    }
}

Sombreador de fragmentos

geo.frag

#version 400

in TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec3 col;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

float Fresnel_Schlick( float theta )
{
    float m = clamp( 1.0 - theta, 0.0, 1.0 );
    float m2 = m * m;
    return m2 * m2 * m; // pow( m, 5.0 )
}

vec3 LightModel( vec3 esPt, vec3 esPtNV, vec3 col, vec4 specularTint, float roughness, float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  // Schlick approximation
  float fresnel = fresnel0 + ( 1.0 - fresnel0 ) * Fresnel_Schlick( HdotL );
  // Beckmann distribution
  float distribution = max( 0.0, exp( ( NdotH2 - 1.0 ) / ( m2 * NdotH2 ) ) / ( 3.14159265 * m2 * NdotH2 * NdotH2 ) );
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );
  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float k_specular = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  
  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) *     u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}

void main()
{
    vec3 lightCol = LightModel( inData.pos, inData.nv, inData.col, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    fragColor = vec4( clamp( lightCol, 0.0, 1.0 ), 1.0 );
}

Guión Phyton

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    viewMat = Translate( viewMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -12.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-0.1, 1.0, -5.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up the model matrix
    modelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: modelMat = RotateY( modelMat, comeraRotAng )
    modelMat = Scale( modelMat, np.repeat( 4, 3 ) )
    #modelMat = Translate( modelMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, 1.0] ) )
    #modelMat = RotateY( modelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 20.0 ) )
    modelMat = RotateX( modelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 9.0 ) )
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw point
    materialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelMat )
    glBindVertexArray( pointVAObj )
    glDrawArrays( GL_POINTS, 0, 1 )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER: 'geometry', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets    [self.namemap[uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA    [3,i1]    
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define location vertex array opject
pointVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, [0.0, 0.0, 0.0] ), (3, [0.0, 0.0, -1.0]), (3, [1.0, 0.0, 0.0]) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'geo.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'geo.geo', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'geo.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation       = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_viewMat44")
modelMatLocation      = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelMat44")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

materialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
materialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.5])
materialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.2])
materialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 0.5, 0.5, 0.8])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()

Cambiando la geometría y la representación de la superficie usando subrutinas en OGL 4.0 GLSL

Un simple programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL que muestra las subrutinas de sombreado de uso. El programa se ejecuta con un script phyton. Para ejecutar el script, PyOpenGL y NumPy deben estar instalados.

Las subrutinas cambian entre diferentes geometrías generadas en el sombreador de geometría y cambian la representación de la superficie.

Sombreador de vértices

subr.vert

#version 400

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNormal;
layout (location = 2) in vec3 inTangent;

out TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} outData;

void main()
{
    vec3 normal   = normalize( inNormal );
    vec3 tangent  = normalize( inTangent );
    vec3 binormal = cross( tangent, normal );
    
    outData.orientationMat = mat3( normal, cross( binormal, normal ), binormal );
    gl_Position = vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
}

Sombreador de geometría

subr.geo

#version 400

layout( points ) in;
layout( triangle_strip, max_vertices = 512 ) out;

in TVertexData
{
    mat3 orientationMat;
} inData[];

out TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec2 tex;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_viewMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelMat44;
uniform mat4 u_textureMat44;

void SetTextureCoord( in vec2 tecCoord )
{
    vec4 tex = u_textureMat44 * vec4( tecCoord, 0.0, 1.0 );
    outData.tex = tex.xy;
}

void NewVertex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat )
{
    vec4 viewPos = transMat * vec4( pt, 1.0 );
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
    EmitVertex();
}

void NewVertexAndTex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat )
{
    SetTextureCoord( pt.xy * 0.5 + 0.5 );
    NewVertex( pt, transMat ); 
}

void NewVertexNvTex( in vec3 pt, in mat4 transMat, in vec3 nv, in vec2 tex )
{
    outData.nv = nv;
    SetTextureCoord( tex );
    vec4 viewPos = transMat * vec4( pt, 1.0 );
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
    EmitVertex();
}

subroutine void TShape( in mat4 );
subroutine uniform TShape su_shape;

void main()
{
    vec4 origin = gl_in[0].gl_Position;
    origin /= origin.w;
    mat4 orintationMat = mat4( vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[0], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[1], 0.0 ),
                               vec4( inData[0].orientationMat[2], 0.0 ),
                               origin );
    mat4 modelMat = u_modelMat44 * orintationMat;

    su_shape( modelMat );
}

subroutine(TShape) void DrawSphere( in mat4 modelMat )
{           
    const int circumferenceTile = 18;
    const int layersTile        = 11;

    mat4 modelViewMat = u_viewMat44 * modelMat;
    mat3 normalMat    = mat3( modelViewMat );

    float preStepLay = 0.0; 
    vec2  prePtLay   = vec2( 0.0, -1.0 );
    for ( int inxLay = 1; inxLay <= layersTile; ++ inxLay )
    {
        float stepLay = float(inxLay) / float(layersTile);
        float angLay  = 3.14159 * stepLay;
        vec2  ptLay   = vec2( sin(angLay), -cos(angLay) );

        float preStepCir = 0.0; 
        vec2  prePtCir   = vec2( 0.0, 1.0 );
        for ( int inxCir = 0; inxCir <= circumferenceTile; ++ inxCir )
        {    
            float stepCir = float(inxCir) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float angCir  = 2.0 * 3.14159 * stepCir;
            vec2  ptCir   = vec2( sin(angCir), cos(angCir) );

            if ( inxLay == 1 )
            {
                if ( inxCir >= 0 )
                {
                    vec3 pt1 = vec3( ptLay.x * prePtCir.x, ptLay.x * prePtCir.y, ptLay.y );
                    vec3 pt2 = vec3( 0.0, 0.0, -1.0 );
                    vec3 pt3 = vec3( ptLay.x * ptCir.x, ptLay.x * ptCir.y, ptLay.y );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt1, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt1, vec2( preStepCir * 2.0, stepLay ) );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt2, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt2, vec2( preStepCir + stepCir, preStepLay )  );   
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt3, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt3, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, stepLay )  ); 
                    EndPrimitive();
                }  
            }
            else if ( inxLay == layersTile )
            {
                if ( inxCir > 0 )
                {
                    vec3 pt1 = vec3( prePtLay.x * prePtCir.x, prePtLay.x * prePtCir.y, prePtLay.y );
                    vec3 pt2 = vec3( prePtLay.x * ptCir.x, prePtLay.x * ptCir.y, prePtLay.y );
                    vec3 pt3 = vec3( 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt1, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt1, vec2( preStepCir * 2.0, preStepLay ) );
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt2, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt2, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, preStepLay )  );   
                    NewVertexNvTex( pt3, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt3, vec2( preStepCir + stepCir, stepLay )  ); 
                    EndPrimitive();
                }    
            }
            else
            {
                vec3 pt1 = vec3( prePtLay.x * ptCir.x, prePtLay.x * ptCir.y, prePtLay.y );
                vec3 pt2 = vec3( ptLay.x * ptCir.x, ptLay.x * ptCir.y, ptLay.y );
                NewVertexNvTex( pt1, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt1, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, preStepLay ) );
                NewVertexNvTex( pt2, modelViewMat, normalMat * pt2, vec2( stepCir * 2.0, stepLay )  );
            }

            preStepCir = stepCir;
            prePtCir   = ptCir;
        }
        if ( inxLay > 1 && inxLay < layersTile )
            EndPrimitive();
  
        preStepLay = stepLay;
        prePtLay   = ptLay;
    }
}

subroutine(TShape) void DrawTorus( in mat4 modelMat )
{
    const int   circumferenceTile = 12;
    const int   layersTile        = 18;
    const float torusRad          = 0.8;
    const float ringRad           = 0.4;

    mat4 modelViewMat = u_viewMat44 * modelMat;
    mat3 normalMat    = mat3( modelViewMat );

    float preStepLay = 0.0; 
    mat4  prePosMat;
    for ( int inxLay = 0; inxLay <= layersTile; ++ inxLay )
    {
        float stepLay = float(inxLay) / float(layersTile);
        float angLay  = 2.0 * 3.14159 * stepLay;
        mat4  posMat = mat4( 
            vec4( cos(angLay), sin(angLay), 0.0, 0.0 ),
            vec4( sin(angLay), cos(angLay), 0.0, 0.0 ),
            vec4( 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 ),
            vec4( cos(angLay) * torusRad, sin(angLay) * torusRad, 0.0, 1.0 ) );
        
        for ( int inxCir = 0; inxLay > 0 && inxCir <= circumferenceTile; ++ inxCir )
        {    
            float stepCir = float(inxCir) / float(circumferenceTile);
            float angCir  = 2.0 * 3.14159 * stepCir;
            vec2  ptCir   = vec2( sin(angCir), cos(angCir) );

            vec4 tempPt = vec4( ptCir.x * ringRad, 0.0, ptCir.y * ringRad, 1.0 );
            vec4 pt1 = prePosMat * tempPt;
            vec4 pt2 = posMat * tempPt;
            NewVertexNvTex( pt1.xyz, modelViewMat, normalMat * normalize(pt1.xyz - prePosMat[3].xyz), vec2(stepCir,     preStepLay*2.0) );
            NewVertexNvTex( pt2.xyz, modelViewMat, normalMat * normalize(pt2.xyz - posMat[3].xyz), vec2(stepCir, stepLay*2.0)      );
        }
        EndPrimitive();
  
        preStepLay = stepLay;
        prePosMat  = posMat;
    }
}

Sombreador de fragmentos

subr.frag

#version 400

in TGeometryData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
    vec2 tex;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_color;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

subroutine vec4 TSurface( void );
subroutine uniform TSurface su_surface;

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta );
vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 );

void main()
{
    vec4 fragCol = su_surface();
    vec3 lightCol = LightModel( inData.pos, inData.nv, fragCol.rgb, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    
    fragColor = vec4( clamp( lightCol, 0.0, 1.0 ), fragCol.a );
}

subroutine(TSurface) vec4 SurfaceColor( void )
{
  return u_color;
} 

subroutine(TSurface) vec4 SurfaceTexture( void )
{
  return texture( u_texture, inData.tex.st );
} 

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta )
{
    float m = clamp( 1.0 - theta, 0.0, 1.0 );
    float m2 = m * m;
    return m2 * m2 * m; // pow( m, 5.0 )
}

vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  // Schlick approximation
  float fresnel = fresnel0 + ( 1.0 - fresnel0 ) * Fresnel_Schlick( HdotL );
  // Beckmann distribution
  float distribution = max( 0.0, exp( ( NdotH2 - 1.0 ) / ( m2 * NdotH2 ) ) / ( 3.14159265 * m2 * NdotH2 * NdotH2 ) );
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );
  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float k_specular = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  
  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) * u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}

Guión Phyton

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    viewMat = Translate( viewMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -14.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-1.0, -1.0, -5.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up model matrices
    modelMat = []
    for inx in range(0, 2):
        modelMat.append( np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32') )
        if not rotateCamera: modelMat[inx] = RotateY( modelMat[inx], comeraRotAng )
    
    modelMat[0] = Scale( modelMat[0], np.repeat( 3, 3 ) )
    modelMat[0] = Translate( modelMat[0], np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -2.0] ) )
    modelMat[0] = RotateY( modelMat[0], CalcAng( currentTime, 23.0 ) )
    modelMat[0] = RotateX( modelMat[0], CalcAng( currentTime, 13.0 ) )
    
    modelMat[1] = Scale( modelMat[1], np.repeat( 3, 3 ) )
    modelMat[1] = Translate( modelMat[1], np.array( [0.0, 0.0, 2.0] ) )
    modelMat[1] = RotateY( modelMat[1], CalcAng( currentTime, 17.0 ) )
    modelMat[1] = RotateX( modelMat[1], CalcAng( currentTime, 9.0 ) )

    # set up texture matrix
    texMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
 
    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( viewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, viewMat )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( textureMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, texMat )
    glUniform1i( textureLocation, 0 )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw points
    glBindVertexArray( pointVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, 2):
        # set up geometry shader subroutine
        shape = 1 if inx==0 else 0 # 0: sphere, 1: torus 
        glUniformSubroutinesuiv(GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER, 1, np.array( [shape], dtype='uint' ))
        # set up fragment shader subroutine
        surfaceKind = inx # 0: color, 1: texture
        glUniformSubroutinesuiv(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER, 1, np.array( [surfaceKind], dtype='uint' ))
       
        materialBuffer[inx].BindToTarget()
        glUniformMatrix4fv( modelMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelMat[inx] )
        glDrawArrays( GL_POINTS, 0, 1 )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER: 'geometry', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# linke shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets[self.namemap    [uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA[3,i1]        
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define location vertex array opject
pointVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, [0.0, 0.0, 0.0] ), (3, [0.0, 0.0, 1.0]), (3, [1.0, 0.0, 0.0]) ] )

# create texture
texCX, texCY = 128, 128
texPlan = np.zeros( texCX * texCY * 4, dtype=np.uint8 )
for inx_x in range(0, texCX):
    for inx_y in range(0, texCY):
        val_x = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_x / texCX )
        val_y = math.sin( math.pi * 6.0 * inx_y / texCY )
        inx_tex = inx_y * texCX * 4 + inx_x * 4
        texPlan[inx_tex + 0] = int( 128 + 127 * val_x )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 1] = 63
        texPlan[inx_tex + 2] = int( 128 + 127 * val_y )
        texPlan[inx_tex + 3] = 255
glActiveTexture( GL_TEXTURE0 )
texObj = glGenTextures( 1  )
glBindTexture( GL_TEXTURE_2D, texObj )
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, texCX, texCY, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, texPlan)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT)
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT) 

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4subr/subr.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4subr/subr.geo', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'python/ogl4subr/subr.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
viewMatLocation       = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_viewMat44")
modelMatLocation      = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelMat44")
textureMatLocation    = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_textureMat44")
textureLocation       = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_texture")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

materialBuffer = [ UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial), UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial) ]

materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.45])
materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.45])
materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_color', [0.5, 0.7, 0.6, 1.0])
materialBuffer[0].BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 0.5, 0.5, 0.8])

materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.4])
materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.4])
materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_color', [0.7, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0])
materialBuffer[1].BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[0.5, 1.0, 0.5, 0.8])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()

Cambiar la geometría con sombreadores de teselado en OGL 4.0 GLSL

Un simple programa de sombreado OGL 4.0 GLSL que muestra cómo agregar detalles con sombreado de teselación a la geometría. El programa se ejecuta con un script de python. Para ejecutar el script, PyOpenGL y NumPy deben estar instalados.

La malla básica en este ejemplo es un icosaedro que consta de 20 triángulos. El sombreador de control de teselación define cómo se divide cada triángulo en un conjunto de muchas partes pequeñas. Al teselar un triángulo, los datos generados son coordenadas baricéntricas basadas en el triángulo original. El sombreador de evaluación de teselado genera nueva geometría a partir de los datos obtenidos de esta manera. En este ejemplo, cada triángulo tiene un pico en el medio, que se eleva hacia afuera desde el centro del icosader. De esta forma se genera una geometría mucho más compleja que el icosaedro original.

Sombreador de vértices

tess.vert

layout (location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec3 inNV;

out TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;
uniform mat4 u_modelViewMat44;
uniform mat3 u_normalMat33;

void main()
{
    vec4 viewPos = u_modelViewMat44 * vec4( inPos, 1.0 );
    
    outData.pos = viewPos.xyz / viewPos.w;
    outData.nv  = u_normalMat33 * normalize( inNV );
    
    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * viewPos;
}

Shader de control de teselado

tess.tctrl

#version 400

layout( vertices=3 ) out;

in TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} inData[];

out TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} outData[];

void main()
{
    outData[gl_InvocationID].pos = inData[gl_InvocationID].pos;
    outData[gl_InvocationID].nv  = inData[gl_InvocationID].nv;
  
    if ( gl_InvocationID == 0 )
    {
        gl_TessLevelOuter[0] = 10.0;
        gl_TessLevelOuter[1] = 10.0;
        gl_TessLevelOuter[2] = 10.0;
        gl_TessLevelInner[0] = 10.0;
    }
}

Shader de evaluación de teselado

tess.teval

#version 400

layout(triangles, equal_spacing, ccw) in;

in TVertexData
{
    vec3 pos;
    vec3 nv;
} inData[];

out TTessData
{
    vec3  pos;
    vec3  nv;
    float height;
} outData;

uniform mat4 u_projectionMat44;

void main()
{
    float sideLen[3] = float[3]
    (
        length( inData[1].pos - inData[0].pos ),
        length( inData[2].pos - inData[1].pos ),
        length( inData[0].pos - inData[2].pos )
    );
    float s = ( sideLen[0] + sideLen[1] + sideLen[2] ) / 2.0;
    float rad = sqrt( (s - sideLen[0]) * (s - sideLen[1]) * (s - sideLen[2]) / s );

    vec3 cpt = ( inData[0].pos + inData[1].pos + inData[2].pos ) / 3.0;
    vec3 pos = inData[0].pos * gl_TessCoord.x + inData[1].pos * gl_TessCoord.y + inData[2].pos * gl_TessCoord.z;
    vec3 nv  = normalize( inData[0].nv * gl_TessCoord.x + inData[1].nv * gl_TessCoord.y + inData[2].nv * gl_TessCoord.z );

    float cptDist      = length( cpt - pos );
    float sizeRelation = 1.0 - min( rad, cptDist ) / rad; 
    float height       = pow( sizeRelation, 2.0 );

    outData.pos    = pos + nv * height * rad;
    outData.nv     = mix( nv, normalize( pos - cpt ), height );
    outData.height = height;

    gl_Position = u_projectionMat44 * vec4( outData.pos, 1.0 );
}

Sombreador de fragmentos

tess.frag

#version 400

in TTessData
{
    vec3  pos;
    vec3  nv;
    float height;
} inData;

out vec4 fragColor;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;

uniform UB_material
{
    float u_roughness;
    float u_fresnel0;
    vec4  u_color;
    vec4  u_specularTint;
};

struct TLightSource
{
    vec4 ambient;
    vec4 diffuse;
    vec4 specular;
    vec4 dir;
};

uniform UB_lightSource
{
    TLightSource u_lightSource;
};

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta );
vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 );

void main()
{
    vec3 col = mix( u_color.rgb, vec3( 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 ), inData.height );
    vec3 lightCol = LightModel( inData.pos, inData.nv, col, u_specularTint, u_roughness, u_fresnel0 );
    fragColor = vec4( clamp( lightCol, 0.0, 1.0 ), 1.0 );
}

float Fresnel_Schlick( in float theta )
{
    float m = clamp( 1.0 - theta, 0.0, 1.0 );
    float m2 = m * m;
    return m2 * m2 * m; // pow( m, 5.0 )
}

vec3 LightModel( in vec3 esPt, in vec3 esPtNV, in vec3 col, in vec4 specularTint, in float roughness, in float fresnel0 )
{
  vec3  esVLight      = normalize( -u_lightSource.dir.xyz );
  vec3  esVEye        = normalize( -esPt );
  vec3  halfVector    = normalize( esVEye + esVLight );
  float HdotL         = dot( halfVector, esVLight );
  float NdotL         = dot( esPtNV, esVLight );
  float NdotV         = dot( esPtNV, esVEye );
  float NdotH         = dot( esPtNV, halfVector );
  float NdotH2        = NdotH * NdotH;
  float NdotL_clamped = max( NdotL, 0.0 );
  float NdotV_clamped = max( NdotV, 0.0 );
  float m2            = roughness * roughness;
  
  // Lambertian diffuse
  float k_diffuse = NdotL_clamped;
  // Schlick approximation
  float fresnel = fresnel0 + ( 1.0 - fresnel0 ) * Fresnel_Schlick( HdotL );
  // Beckmann distribution
  float distribution = max( 0.0, exp( ( NdotH2 - 1.0 ) / ( m2 * NdotH2 ) ) / ( 3.14159265 * m2 * NdotH2 * NdotH2 ) );
  // Torrance-Sparrow geometric term
  float geometric_att = min( 1.0, min( 2.0 * NdotH * NdotV_clamped / HdotL, 2.0 * NdotH * NdotL_clamped / HdotL ) );
  // Microfacet bidirectional reflectance distribution function 
  float k_specular = fresnel * distribution * geometric_att / ( 4.0 * NdotL_clamped * NdotV_clamped );
  
  vec3 lightColor = col.rgb * u_lightSource.ambient.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_diffuse ) * col.rgb * u_lightSource.diffuse.rgb +
                    max( 0.0, k_specular ) * mix( col.rgb, specularTint.rgb, specularTint.a ) * u_lightSource.specular.rgb;
  return lightColor;
}

Secuencia de comandos de Python

from OpenGL.GL import *
from OpenGL.GLUT import *
from OpenGL.GLU import *
import numpy as np
from time import time
import math
import sys

sin120 = 0.8660254
rotateCamera = False

# draw event
def OnDraw():
    dist = 3.0
    currentTime = time()
    comeraRotAng = CalcAng( currentTime, 10.0 ) 
    # set up projection matrix
    prjMat = Perspective(90.0, wndW/wndH, 0.5, 100.0) 
    # set up view matrix
    viewMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    viewMat = Translate( viewMat, np.array( [0.0, 0.0, -12.0] ) )
    viewMat = RotateView( viewMat, [30.0, comeraRotAng if rotateCamera else 0.0, 0.0] )

    # set up light source
    lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.dir', TransformVec4([-1.0, -1.0, -5.0, 0.0], viewMat) )
    
    # set up icosahedron model matrix
    icoModelMat = np.matrix(np.identity(4), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    if not rotateCamera: icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, comeraRotAng ) 
    icoModelMat = Scale( icoModelMat, np.repeat( 5, 3 ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateY( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 17.0 ) )
    icoModelMat = RotateX( icoModelMat, CalcAng( currentTime, 13.0 ) )

    # set up attributes and shader program
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST )
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT )
    glUseProgram( shaderProgram )
    glUniformMatrix4fv( projectionMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, prjMat )
    lightSourceBuffer.BindToTarget()
    
    # draw icosahedron
    icoMaterialBuffer.BindToTarget()
    modelViewMat = Multiply(viewMat, icoModelMat)
    glUniformMatrix4fv( modelViewMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, modelViewMat )
    glUniformMatrix3fv( normalMatLocation, 1, GL_FALSE, ToMat33(modelViewMat) )
    glBindVertexArray( icoVAObj )
    glPatchParameteri( GL_PATCH_VERTICES, 3 )
    glDrawArrays( GL_PATCHES, 0, len(icoPosData) )
    
    glutSwapBuffers()

def Fract(val): return val - math.trunc(val)
def CalcAng(currentTime, intervall): return Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 360.0
def CalcMove(currentTime, intervall, range):
    pos = Fract( (currentTime - startTime) / intervall ) * 2.0
    pos = pos if pos < 1.0 else (2.0-pos)
    return range[0] + (range[1] - range[0]) * pos
    
# read shader program and compile shader
def CompileShader( sourceFileName, shaderStage ):
    with open( sourceFileName, 'r' ) as sourceFile:
        sourceCode = sourceFile.read()
    nameMap = { GL_VERTEX_SHADER: 'vertex', GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER: 'geometry', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER: 'fragment' }    
    print( '\n%s shader code:' % nameMap.get(shaderStage, '') )
    print( sourceCode )
    shaderObj = glCreateShader( shaderStage )
    glShaderSource( shaderObj, sourceCode )
    glCompileShader( shaderObj )
    result = glGetShaderiv( shaderObj, GL_COMPILE_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( glGetShaderInfoLog( shaderObj ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderObj

# link shader objects to shader program
def LinkProgram( shaderObjs ):
    shaderProgram = glCreateProgram()
    for shObj in shaderObjs:
        glAttachShader( shaderProgram, shObj )
    glLinkProgram( shaderProgram )
    result = glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS )
    if not (result):
        print( 'link error:' )
        print( glGetProgramInfoLog( shaderProgram ) )
        sys.exit()
    return shaderProgram

# create vertex array object
def CreateVAO( dataArrays ):
    noOfBuffers = len(dataArrays)
    buffers = glGenBuffers(noOfBuffers)
    newVAObj = glGenVertexArrays( 1 )
    glBindVertexArray( newVAObj )
    for inx in range(0, noOfBuffers):
        vertexSize, dataArr = dataArrays[inx]
        arr = np.array( dataArr, dtype='float32' )
        glBindBuffer( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers[inx] )
        glBufferData( GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, arr, GL_STATIC_DRAW )
        glEnableVertexAttribArray( inx )
        glVertexAttribPointer( inx, vertexSize, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, None )
    return newVAObj 

# representation of a uniform block
class UniformBlock:
     def __init__(self, shaderProg, name):
        self.shaderProg = shaderProg 
        self.name = name
     def Link(self, bindingPoint):
        self.bindingPoint = bindingPoint
        self.noOfUniforms = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS)
        self.maxUniformNameLen = glGetProgramiv(self.shaderProg, GL_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_MAX_LENGTH)
        self.index = glGetUniformBlockIndex(self.shaderProg, self.name)
        intData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORMS, intData)
        self.count = intData[0]
        self.indices = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformBlockiv(self.shaderProg, self.index, GL_UNIFORM_BLOCK_ACTIVE_UNIFORM_INDICES, self.indices)
        self.offsets = np.zeros(self.count, dtype=int)
        glGetActiveUniformsiv(self.shaderProg, self.count, self.indices, GL_UNIFORM_OFFSET, self.offsets)
        strLengthData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        arraysizeData = np.zeros(1, dtype=int)
        typeData = np.zeros(1, dtype='uint32')
        nameData = np.chararray(self.maxUniformNameLen+1)
        self.namemap = {}
        self.dataSize = 0 
        for inx in range(0, len(self.indices)):
            glGetActiveUniform( self.shaderProg, self.indices[inx], self.maxUniformNameLen, strLengthData, arraysizeData,     typeData, nameData.data )
            name = nameData.tostring()[:strLengthData[0]]
            self.namemap[name] = inx
            self.dataSize = max(self.dataSize, self.offsets[inx] + arraysizeData * 16) 
        glUniformBlockBinding(self.shaderProg, self.index, self.bindingPoint)
        print('\nuniform block %s size:%4d' % (self.name, self.dataSize))
        for uName in self.namemap:
            print( '    %-40s index:%2d    offset:%4d' % (uName, self.indices[self.namemap[uName]], self.offsets[self.namemap    [uName]]) ) 

# representation of a uniform block buffer
class UniformBlockBuffer:
    def __init__(self, ub):
        self.namemap = ub.namemap
        self.offsets = ub.offsets
        self.bindingPoint = ub.bindingPoint
        self.object = glGenBuffers(1)
        self.dataSize = ub.dataSize
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.zeros(self.dataSize//4, dtype='float32')
        glBufferData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.dataSize, dataArray, GL_DYNAMIC_DRAW)
    def BindToTarget(self):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        glBindBufferBase(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.bindingPoint, self.object)
    def BindDataFloat(self, name, dataArr):
        glBindBuffer(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.object)
        dataArray = np.array(dataArr, dtype='float32')
        glBufferSubData(GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER, self.offsets[self.namemap[name]], len(dataArr)*4, dataArray)

def Translate(matA, trans):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i in range(0, 4): matB[3,i] = matA[0,i] * trans[0] + matA[1,i] * trans[1] + matA[2,i] * trans[2] + matA[3,i] 
    return matB

def Scale(matA, s):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 4): matB[i0,i1] = matA[i0,i1] * s[i0] 
    return matB

def RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, a0, a1):
    matB = np.copy(matA)
    ang = math.radians(angDeg)
    sinAng, cosAng = math.sin(ang), math.cos(ang)
    for i in range(0, 4):
        matB[a0,i] = matA[a0,i] * cosAng + matA[a1,i] * sinAng
        matB[a1,i] = matA[a0,i] * -sinAng + matA[a1,i] * cosAng
    return matB

def RotateX(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 1, 2)
def RotateY(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 2, 0)
def RotateZ(matA, angDeg): return RotateHlp(matA, angDeg, 0, 1)
def RotateView(matA, angDeg): return RotateZ(RotateY(RotateX(matA, angDeg[0]), angDeg[1]), angDeg[2])

def Multiply(matA, matB):
    matC = np.copy(matA)
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        for i1 in range(0, 4):
            matC[i0,i1] = matB[i0,0] * matA[0,i1] + matB[i0,1] * matA[1,i1] + matB[i0,2] * matA[2,i1] + matB[i0,3] * matA[3,i1]        
    return matC

def ToMat33(mat44):
    mat33 = np.matrix(np.identity(3), copy=False, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 3):
        for i1 in range(0, 3): mat33[i0, i1] = mat44[i0, i1]
    return mat33

def TransformVec4(vecA,mat44):
    vecB = np.zeros(4, dtype='float32')
    for i0 in range(0, 4):
        vecB[i0] = vecA[0] * mat44[0,i0] + vecA[1] * mat44[1,i0] + vecA[2] * mat44[2,i0]  + vecA[3] * mat44[3,i0]
    return vecB

def Perspective(fov, aspectRatio, near, far):
    fn, f_n = far + near, far - near
    r, t = aspectRatio, 1.0 / math.tan( math.radians(fov) / 2.0 )
    return np.matrix( [ [t/r,0,0,0], [0,t,0,0], [0,0,-fn/f_n,-2.0*far*near/f_n], [0,0,-1,0] ] )

def AddToBuffer( buffer, data, count=1 ): 
    for inx_c in range(0, count):
        for inx_s in range(0, len(data)): buffer.append( data[inx_s] ) 

# initialize glut
glutInit()

# create window
wndW, wndH = 800, 600
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_ALPHA | GLUT_DEPTH)
glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0)
glutInitWindowSize(wndW, wndH)
wndID = glutCreateWindow(b'OGL window') 
glutDisplayFunc(OnDraw) 
glutIdleFunc(OnDraw)

# define icosahedron vertex array opject
icoPts = [
    ( 0.000,  0.000,  1.000), ( 0.894,  0.000,  0.447), ( 0.276,  0.851,  0.447), (-0.724,  0.526,  0.447),
    (-0.724, -0.526,  0.447), ( 0.276, -0.851,  0.447), ( 0.724,  0.526, -0.447), (-0.276,  0.851, -0.447), 
    (-0.894,  0.000, -0.447), (-0.276, -0.851, -0.447), ( 0.724, -0.526, -0.447), ( 0.000,  0.000, -1.000) ]
icoCol = [ [1.0, 0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.5, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0, 1.0] ]
icoIndices = [
  2,  0,  1,  3,  0,  2,  4,  0,  3,  5,  0,  4,  1,  0,  5, 11,  7,  6, 11,  8,  7, 11,  9,  8, 11, 10,  9, 11,  6, 10, 
  1,  6,  2,  2,  7,  3,  3,  8,  4,  4,  9,  5,  5, 10,  1,  2,  6,  7,  3,  7,  8,  4,  8,  9,  5,  9, 10,  1, 10,  6  ]
icoPosData = []
for inx in icoIndices: AddToBuffer( icoPosData, icoPts[inx] )
icoNVData = []
for inx_nv in range(0, len(icoIndices) // 3):
    nv = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0]
    for inx_p in range(0, 3): 
        for inx_s in range(0, 3): nv[inx_s] += icoPts[ icoIndices[inx_nv*3 + inx_p] ][inx_s]
    AddToBuffer( icoNVData, nv, 3 )
icoVAObj = CreateVAO( [ (3, icoPosData), (3, icoNVData) ] )

# load, compile and link shader
shaderProgram = LinkProgram( [
        CompileShader( 'tess.vert', GL_VERTEX_SHADER ),
        CompileShader( 'tess.tctrl', GL_TESS_CONTROL_SHADER ),
        CompileShader( 'tess.teval', GL_TESS_EVALUATION_SHADER ), 
        CompileShader( 'tess.frag', GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER )
    ] )
# get unifor locations
projectionMatLocation = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_projectionMat44")
modelViewMatLocation  = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_modelViewMat44")
normalMatLocation     = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_normalMat33")
# linke uniform blocks
ubMaterial = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_material")
ubLightSource = UniformBlock(shaderProgram, "UB_lightSource")
ubMaterial.Link(1)
ubLightSource.Link(2)

# create uniform block buffers
lightSourceBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubLightSource)
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.ambient', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.diffuse', [0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0])
lightSourceBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_lightSource.specular', [1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0])

icoMaterialBuffer = UniformBlockBuffer(ubMaterial)
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_roughness', [0.45])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_fresnel0', [0.4])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_color', [0.6, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0])
icoMaterialBuffer.BindDataFloat(b'u_specularTint',[1.0, 0.5, 0.5, 0.8])

# start main loop
startTime = time()
glutMainLoop()

Instalación o configuración

Instrucciones detalladas sobre cómo configurar o instalar glsl.