jpa Tutorial

JPA is the Java Persistence API, a specification handling the mapping of Java objects and their relationships to a relational database. This is called an object-relational mapper (ORM). It is an alternative for (or supplement to) the more low-level JDBC. It is most useful when pursuing a Java-oriented approach and when complex object graphs need to be persisted.

JPA in itself is not an implementation. You will need a persistence provider for that (see examples). Current implementations of the latest JPA 2.1 standard are EclipseLink (also the reference implementation for JPA 2.1, which means “proof that the spec can be implemented”); Hibernate, and DataNucleus.


The mapping between Java objects and database tables is defined via persistence metadata. The JPA provider will use the persistence metadata information to perform the correct database operations. JPA typically defines the metadata via annotations in the Java class.

Object-Relational Entity Architecture

The entity architecture is composed of:

  • entities

  • persistence units

  • persistence contexts

  • entity manager factories

  • entity managers